Investing in credit: Building robust portfolios for the long term

Insight
PDF 528.2KB
02 June 2017

Long-Term Investing In Credit 

Institutional investors have long been investing in credit. The current credit cycle fuelled by the inflation of Central Banks’ balance sheets has however provided a relatively easy ride to credit investors, with little incentive to differentiate between issuers. With structural changes, such as increased transaction costs and the credit cycle nearing an end, some investors have started to question whether the asset class is offering sufficient value after transaction costs and credit events are accounted for. Rather than reducing their exposure to the asset class altogether, institutional investors concerned about these developments may be better off paying more attention to issuer and issuance selection, and avoiding some types of credit. In this paper, we highlight some of the structural changes the credit market has undergone recently and suggest ways in which investments based on fundamental analysis in an unconstrained framework could help generate sustainable, long-term return streams while managing the heightened risk in credit.

Structural changes within the credit markets today

Traditionally, fixed income markets have been structured as over-the-counter (OTC) markets with banks acting as market makers or dealers. As dealers, banks have been the ones providing liquidity by warehousing corporate bond inventory when buyers and sellers are not immediately available to settle a transaction. This has ensured the stable functioning of corporate bond markets.
After the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) however, regulatory reforms such as Basel III, the DoddFrank Act of 2010 and the Volcker Rules on proprietary trading, have resulted in greater capital and liquidity requirements for banks. As such banks are unable to maintain large inventories of corporate bonds (as illustrated using the US market in Figure 1) and market making in this sphere is no longer as lucrative for them. A majority of the corporate bond inventory therefore has shifted from bank balance sheets to investors. This means banks are unable to be efficient market makers – leading to lower liquidity in the system as a whole, which in turn increases the transaction costs of trading. As a relative measure too, transaction costs have become a larger proportion of the yields available as illustrated using the Sterling market in Figure 2. Hence minimising transaction costs has become a key consideration in managing a credit portfolio.

Figure 1: Diminishing dealer inventory

Source: AXA IM and Bloomberg LP as at 31/03/2017. For illustrative purposes only. (1)Adjusted for the size of the bond market as measured by the BofA Merrill Lynch US Corporate Index (C0A0). US Corporate Bond inventory is measured by the sum of Primary Dealer Positions Net Outright Total Corp Securities (PDPPCRP2), Primary Dealer Positions Net Outright Non-Agency Residential MBS (PDPPGCMB), Primary Dealer Positions Net Outright Other asset-backed securities (PDPPOABS) and Primary Dealer Positions Net Outright Other CMBS (PDPPOCMB)
 

Figure 2: Increasing transaction costs relative to yield

Source: UBS Delta, iBoxx Sterling Non-Gilts Index, 2003-2016. For illustrative purposes only.
 

In addition to the regulatory reforms discussed above all major central banks (including the Fed, ECB, BoE, BoJ) have employed quantitative easing (QE) to help stabilise their economies in the wake of the GFC. While QE was critical in breaking the downward momentum of the crisis, it is now becoming clear that this benign credit environment is not going to be sustainable as the global economy approaches the peak of the long-term debt cycle. Just as transaction costs are a larger proportion of available yields in today’s environment, credit spread makes up a significant part of the total return an investor can hope to receive as illustrated using the US market in Figure 3 (10% in 2000 versus 56% in 2016). With a reduced buffer to compensate for potential defaults, the quality of credit analysis and risk assessment has become even more important for investors, particularly in the anticipated less-benign credit environment.

Figure 3: Increasing share of credit spread in total credit yield

Source: AXA IM and Bloomberg LP as at 31/03/2017. Data shown for the BofA Merrill Lynch US Corporate Index (C0A0). For illustrative purposes only.

1 Asymmetric return strategies refer here to strategies expected to significantly participate in upside potential and mitigate against extreme losses, possibly involving the use of derivatives or a combination of long positions in assets with different risk and return profiles.
3 “The brave new world of negative interest rates”, by Maxime Alimi and the Research & Investment Strategy Team, AXA Investment Managers. 9 March 2016.
4 “The need for yield versus the impending arrival of Solvency II: Resolving insurers’ current equity dilemma.” AXA Investment Managers. September 2015.
5 Regulatory charges for Type 1 equities purchased before 1st January 2016 are more favourable but will increase progressively up to 2023.

This communication is intended for professional investors only and is not for onward distribution to retail clients. Circulation must be restricted accordingly.
Any reproduction of this information, in whole or in part, is unless otherwise authorised by AXA IM, prohibited. This document is used for informational purposes only and does not constitute, on AXA Investment Managers’ part, an offer to buy or sell, a solicitation or investment advice. It has been established on the basis of data, projections, forecasts, anticipations and hypotheses which are subjective. Its analysis and conclusions are the expression of an opinion, based on available data at a specific date. Due to the subjective and indicative aspects of these analyses, we draw your attention to the fact that the effective evolution of the economic variables and values of the financial markets could be significantly different from the indications (projections, forecasts, anticipations and hypo-theses) which are communicated in this document. Furthermore, due to simplification, the information given in this document can only be viewed as subjective. This document may be modified without notice and AXA Investment Managers may, but shall not be obligated to, update or otherwise revise this document. All information in this document is established on data made public by official providers of economic and market statistics. AXA Investment Managers disclaims any and all liability relating to a decision based on or for reliance on this document. Furthermore, due to the subjective nature of these analysis and opinions, these data, projections, forecasts, anticipations, hypotheses and/or opinions are not necessarily used or followed by AXA IM’s management teams or its affiliates who may act based on their own opinions and as independent departments within the Company. By accepting this information, the recipient of this document agrees that it will use the information only to evaluate its potential interest in the strategies described herein and for no other purpose and will not divulge any such information to any other party. Telephone calls may be recorded for quality assurance purposes. © 2017 AXA Investment Managers.