Investing in credit: Building robust portfolios for the long term
Long-Term Investing In Credit
Institutional investors have long been investing in credit. The current credit cycle fuelled by the inflation of Central Banks’ balance sheets has however provided a relatively easy ride to credit investors, with little incentive to differentiate between issuers. With structural changes, such as increased transaction costs and the credit cycle nearing an end, some investors have started to question whether the asset class is offering sufficient value after transaction costs and credit events are accounted for. Rather than reducing their exposure to the asset class altogether, institutional investors concerned about these developments may be better off paying more attention to issuer and issuance selection, and avoiding some types of credit. In this paper, we highlight some of the structural changes the credit market has undergone recently and suggest ways in which investments based on fundamental analysis in an unconstrained framework could help generate sustainable, long-term return streams while managing the heightened risk in credit.
Structural changes within the credit markets today
Traditionally, fixed income markets have been structured as over-the-counter (OTC) markets with banks acting as market makers or dealers. As dealers, banks have been the ones providing liquidity by warehousing corporate bond inventory when buyers and sellers are not immediately available to settle a transaction. This has ensured the stable functioning of corporate bond markets.
After the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) however, regulatory reforms such as Basel III, the DoddFrank Act of 2010 and the Volcker Rules on proprietary trading, have resulted in greater capital and liquidity requirements for banks. As such banks are unable to maintain large inventories of corporate bonds (as illustrated using the US market in Figure 1) and market making in this sphere is no longer as lucrative for them. A majority of the corporate bond inventory therefore has shifted from bank balance sheets to investors. This means banks are unable to be efficient market makers – leading to lower liquidity in the system as a whole, which in turn increases the transaction costs of trading. As a relative measure too, transaction costs have become a larger proportion of the yields available as illustrated using the Sterling market in Figure 2. Hence minimising transaction costs has become a key consideration in managing a credit portfolio.
Figure 1: Diminishing dealer inventory
Figure 2: Increasing transaction costs relative to yield
In addition to the regulatory reforms discussed above all major central banks (including the Fed, ECB, BoE, BoJ) have employed quantitative easing (QE) to help stabilise their economies in the wake of the GFC. While QE was critical in breaking the downward momentum of the crisis, it is now becoming clear that this benign credit environment is not going to be sustainable as the global economy approaches the peak of the long-term debt cycle. Just as transaction costs are a larger proportion of available yields in today’s environment, credit spread makes up a significant part of the total return an investor can hope to receive as illustrated using the US market in Figure 3 (10% in 2000 versus 56% in 2016). With a reduced buffer to compensate for potential defaults, the quality of credit analysis and risk assessment has become even more important for investors, particularly in the anticipated less-benign credit environment.
Figure 3: Increasing share of credit spread in total credit yield
1 Asymmetric return strategies refer here to strategies expected to significantly participate in upside potential and mitigate against extreme losses, possibly involving the use of derivatives or a combination of long positions in assets with different risk and return profiles.
3 “The brave new world of negative interest rates”, by Maxime Alimi and the Research & Investment Strategy Team, AXA Investment Managers. 9 March 2016.
4 “The need for yield versus the impending arrival of Solvency II: Resolving insurers’ current equity dilemma.” AXA Investment Managers. September 2015.
5 Regulatory charges for Type 1 equities purchased before 1st January 2016 are more favourable but will increase progressively up to 2023.
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